|atteo Giulio Bartoli was born on November 22, 1873 in Albona (Labin), at that time part of Austria-Hungary.||
linguist and glottologist
born in Albona
obtained his doctorate at the University of
Vienna and was heavily influenced there by his teacher Wilhelm
Meyer-Lübke (1861-1936), and in Strasburg by his "teacher and colleague"
J. Húbschmann, as well as by certain theories of the Italian
philosopher Benedetto Croce
(1866-1952) and the German linguist Karl Vossler (1872-1949). He also
later studied with Jules L. Gilliéron (1854-1926) in Paris.
Dal Gillièron il B. derivò l'inclinazione per le
ricerche dialettologiche sul campo: a questo tipo di attività egli si
dedicò subito dopo gli studi universitari, svolgendo indagini in
località istriane. Frutto di tali indagini sono le sue prime
pubblicazioni (scritte parte in tedesco), risalenti al 1900:
Due parole sul neolatino indigeno di Dalmazia,' in Rivista
dalmatica, 11 (1900), pp. 5-14; Uber eine Studienreise zur
Erforschung des Altromanischen Dalmatiens, in Wiener...
Anzeiger, XXXV (1899-1900), pp. 159-180; rec. a G.
Vidossi, Studi sul dialetto triestino,in Deutsche
Literaturzeitung, XXIII(1902), pp. 2151-2153.
L'interesse del giovane Bartoli non si limitava a parlate italo-romanze, o al dalmatico, ma già dall'inizio si allargò ad altri idiorni della penisola balcanica, come attesta un'ampia rassegna di studi rumeni allora apparsa negli Studi di filologia romanza, VIII (1901), pp. 517-628. Già con questi primissimi lavori il B. andava dunque orientando il suo studio verso lingue arealmente contigue e verso l'individuazione delle affinità dovute a contiguità.
Risale al 1903 la prima pubblicazione di un certo impegno: la Grammatische Obersicht úber die italienischen Mundarten,apparsa in appendice (pp. M-215) dell'Altitalienische Chrestomathie (Strasburgo 1903) del romanista P. Savj-Lopez. Dall'anno seguente, il B. fu chiamato a redigere la rassegna "Lingua letteraria" nel Kritischer Jahresbericht úber die Fortschritte der romanischen Philologie del Vollmóller, collaborazione protrattasi fino al 1912. Intanto egli andava maturando un ampio e fondamentale studio sul dalmatico, pubblicato nel 1906 nelle Schriften der Balkankommission dell'Accademia viennese delle scienze (Das Dalmatische. Altromanische Sprachreste von Veglia bis Ragusa und ihre Stellung in der appenninobalkanischen Romania. I: Einleitung und Ethnographie Myriens; II: Glossar und Texte, Grammatik und Lexikon,2 VOR., Wien i 906).
In an important early study, Das Dalmatische (1906; “Dalmatian”), he documented and analyzed the now-extinct Romance Vegliot (Vegliotto) dialect of the Adriatic island of Veglia (now Krk, Croatia. This 2-volume study on the Dalmatian language is the only known complete description of this Romance language of the Adriatic island of Veglia (now Krk, Croatia) which is now extinct. He originally wrote it in Italian and later published a translation to German.
For his project, Bartoli visited the last speaker of any Dalmatian dialect, Tuone Udaina Burbur / Antonio Udina (birthdate unknown) in 1897, at which time he wrote down approximately 2,800 words, stories, and accounts of Udaina's life, which were published in Italian and later published a 2-volume translation to German in 1906 entitled Das Dalmatische.
Bartoli provided much information on the vocabulary, phonology and grammar of the language. However, the Italian language manuscripts were lost, and the work was not retranslated into the Italian until 2001. Also unfortunate is that Udaina was hardly an ideal informant; Vegliot Dalmatian was not his native language, and he had learned it only from listening to his parents' private conversations. Moreover, he had not spoken the language for 20 years at the time he acted as an informant, and he was deaf and toothless as well. Moreover, the study was further shortened when Udaina was killed by a landmine a year later on June 10, 1898.
Bartoli's translated book (translated from the German) is described as follows:
Il Dalmatico di Matteo Giulio Bartoli, a cura di Aldo Duro, 2001 pp. 495, retail price € 49,06. The following text is extracted from the introduction by the highly noted glottologist Aldo Duro:
Resti di un'antica lingua romanza parlata da Veglia a Ragusa e sua collocazione nella Romània appennino-balcanica.
This body of work on the extinguished neo-Latin speech of Veglia brought brought to Bartoli assurred esteem in the academic world. In 1907 he was nominated professor extraordinaire of comparative history of classical and neo-Latin languages in Pisa, but soon afterwards that same year he was invited to the Faculty of Letters in Turin where he taught come professore stabile "storia comparata delle lingue classiche e neolatine" (la cattedra assunse successivamente i nomi di "linguistica" e, dal 1939, di "glottologia". He remained in Turin for the rest of his life.
In the 1910s, Bartoli was the linguistics professor of Antonio Gramsci, one of the leading scholars of Italy’s twentieth century. Despite his being a very promising student, probably headed for a brilliant career as an academic, Gramsci dropped out of university to become a political leader and journalist. He was arrested and committed to solitary confinement by the Fascist regime (1926) for his political activities within the Italian Communist Party, which he had co-founded in 1921. While in jail, Gramsci wrote The Prison Notebooks, a heterogeneous work which, among other things, illustrates Gramsci’s interpretation of Marxism. Gramsci died of a stroke on April, 27, 1937 in a hospital in Rome, where he had spent the last two years of his life always under guard by Fascist policemen. In theory, Gramsci died as a free man, since his sentence had expired on April, 21. However, his health conditions made it impossible for him to leave the clinic, and his funerals were held under Fascist police surveillance on April, 28, 1937.
Between 1930 e il 1935, in the then Institute pareggiato di magistero in Turin, took on the commitment of the German language and letters.
As an Italian linguist, meanwhile, Bartoli later advanced his theories about language in Introduzione alla neolinguistica (1925; “Introduction to Neolinguistics”) and Saggi di linguistica spaziale (1945; “Essays on Areal Linguistics”). In his view, there is a direct, causal connection between linguistic expansion and distribution, on the one hand, and linguistic change and its order of occurrence, on the other, thereby emphasizing the geographic spread of linguistic changes and their interpretations in terms of history and culture. Though his chief interest was in Romance languages, he also addressed himself to Proto-Indo-European languages.
Matteo Giulio Bartoli first conceived the Italian Linguistic Atlas (ALI), a project mainly concerned with the diatopic variation, which was finally published in a partial form in the 1990s. It has a long and drawn-out history.
The Italian Linguistic Atlas
All European countries have had for decades their own linguistic atlases - that is, a methodical and systematic collection of maps reproducing, for every single place examined, the corresponding dialectal translations of a concept, a notion or a sentence (set as title to each map) - collected from interviews of informants by one or more interviewers, through inquiries carried out on one or more subjects and based on ad hoc questionnaires.
Only in Italy had such work not yet been completed, even though Italian had long been included in the sprach-und Sachatlas Italiens und der Sudschweiz (AIS) published between 1928 and 1940 by the Swiss linguist Karl Jaberg and Jakob Jud. The Italian Linguistic Atlas (ALI) was first conceived by Matteo Giulio Bartoli during the years before World War I, but its composition was only started in 1924 at Turin University by the "G.I. Ascoli" Friulian Philological Society in Udine, which bravely promoted and supported it. With its huge bulk of ethnolinguistic materials (over 5 million dialectal cards and about 10,000 ethnographic photographs of high documentary value), the now-published Italian Linguistic Atlas claims to be the greatest national achievement in dialectology and one of the greatest among similar works already published or under way in Europe or elsewhere.
The original plan of the work as drawn up by Bartoli involved a very long questionnaire (over 7,000 items), divided into a General Part (including the basic lexicon) and a Special Part (devoted to the lexis of various human activities, such as arts and crafts, fishing, etc.) as well as Demologic Handbook edited by Giuseppe Vidossi about jargons, customs, habits, local beliefs, popular science and literature.
The numerous places to be examined (over 1,000, including the alloglott areas of Albanians, Catalans, Franco-Provencals, Greeks, Provencals, Rumenians, Slavs, Germans and gipsies) were chosen by Bartoli on the basis of a theoretical criterion which would enable one to grasp, at the same time, the archaic and innovative tendencies of Italian vernaculars.
As to the publication of materials, Bartoli's plan included the preparation of 2,000 maps, in 15 in-folio volumes of the same size, scale and characteristics as the Atlas Linguistique de la France (ALF) by Jules-Louis Gilliéron and Edmond Edmont.
Bartoli died on January 23, 1946 in Turin, Italy.
After the deep crisis following World War II it was possible to resume the work only in 1952, when Benvenuto A. Terracini returned to Italy from his exile in Tucuman and took over from Bartoli. So the collection was completed, not without difficulties, in 1964, also thanks to periodical financial contributions offered by the National Research Council. In the same period it was also possible to start the preparatory work for the publication of the Atlas which culminated with the presentation of some trial maps and the publication of the Essay on a Linguistic Atlas of Sardinia (Turin, 1964), edited by B. Terracini and F. Franceschi, based on the materials collected by ALI and containing an ample comment written by Terracini, which was not only the testing ground of the future major Atlas but also its methodological and programmatic manifesto.
The first volume of the Italian Linguistic Atlas was finally published in 1995 by the Polygraphic Institute and the National Mint in Rome and deals with ‘the human body: anatomy, quality and physical defects, and popular arguments, and consists three preliminary charts dealing with 1) the 'official names of the explored localities', 2) the 'dialectal names of the explored localities and inhabitants', and 3) the 'topography of the dialectal replies'.
These were followed by 73 charts (pages 1-73) concerning the anatomy of the human body, 17 charts (pages 74-90) concerning the quality and physical defects and 3 charts (pages 91-93) concerning the popular arguments.
Three additional volumes of the Atlas have since been published:
The «Italian linguistic Atlas», with over 5 million of dialectal entries and with about 10,000 ethnographic pictures of very high documentary value, represent therefore the utmost national dialectological enterprise and absolutely one of the major amongst similar works published or in the course of publication within and outside Europe.
Although this Atlas has been and will undoubtedly continue to be extremely useful for the study of Romance and Italian dialectology, it hardly offers a complete and detailed description of the linguistic situation of Italy, owing to the principles on which it was conceived and the way in which it was carried out. In other words, it does not reflect "all the throbbing vitality of our speechways, well balanced between various historical sedimentations and an age-old, fluctuating tendency towards national unity" (B. Terracini). It is a work in progress with two more volumes underway:
Le quattro norme (the four norms) che hanno reso il Bartoli celebere sono state fissate grazie ai suoi ragionamenti sull' Atlante Linguistico Francese di Gilliéron, e sono le seguenti:
Solitamente nelle aree isolate (e quindi meno esposte al commercio, ed alla comunicazione) si trova una forma linguistica anteriore: ne è clamoroso esempio l'Islanda, che adotta una forma di linguaggio molto simile all'antico norvegese.
Italian: cena [ʧena] > Sardinian: cena [kena]
Sardinia is an isolated place, and mantiene la pronuncia velare di c + i/e ([ki], [ke])
Solitamente nelle aree laterali si conserva una fase più antica rispetto a quella presente nelle aree intermedie.
Latin: circus (most ancient form) > Spanish°: cerco / Romanian°: cerc
°Spain and Romania were aree laterali of the Roman Empire
Solitamente nell’area maggiore si conserva una fase più antica rispetto a zone più ristrette.
Latin: et (most ancient form) > French: et / Italiano: e
Questa regola vale solo se l'area non è troppo esposta
Nelle zone in cui la lingua è arrivata in un secondo momento, tende a conservarsi la fase più antica.
Latin: édere > Spanish°: (comedere) > comer
In italiano il verbo si è perso a favore del tardo latino manducare (mangiare scompostamente)
Latin: manducare > Italian: mangiare
°In Spain, già area laterale dell'Impero Romano, il latino è stato ovviamente portato dopo rispetto all'Italia, dove ha avuto origine.
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